The definition of cell death is the irreversible degeneration of cellular functions resulting in the loss of cellular integrity (Galluzzi et al. 2018). Cell death is a crucial step in organism development, tissue homeostasis, and host defense. There are many mechanisms of regulated cell death (RCD), where signal transduction molecules are not only initiated but also involved in the propagation of cell death.
Initiation of RCD can result from tissue-turnover, known as programmed cell death (PCD), or disruption of the intercellular or extracellular environment (stress driven RCD). Regulated cell death is involved in immunological processes including elimination of infected cells, removal of effector immune cells, and lymphocyte development. RCD, which can act independently of or as a component of homeostasis, eliminates cells that no longer have a purpose and/or that are potentially dangerous. Here damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and alarmins are released by damaged cells to signal their potential hazard.
13 pathways explained:
- Entotic cell death
- Immunogenic cell death
- Lysosome-dependent cell death
- Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis
- Mitotic death
- NETotic cell death